Scientists and medical doctors have known for decades that glutathione, which is produced by the body itself, is the primary protector and detoxifier of the cell. However, under oxidative stress conditions, the glutathione levels become depleted. Also, from near the age of forty, the body’s ability to produce glutathione decreases gradually, then more rapidly at older age. For years, medical scientists have looked for ways to effectively raise the levels of glutathione.
Max’s commitment to bring the benefits of Glutathione enhancement to the world starts with our scientific research led by world-renowned medicinal chemist, Dr. Herbert T. Nagasawa. At one time, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was the only supplement available to enhance the body’s supply of cysteine to enable the production of glutathione. However, Dr. Herbert T. Nagasawa was able to develop a revolutionary molecule known as RiboCeine that effectively delivers cysteine to the cell to support the natural production of glutathione–for which Max International was awarded a U.S. Patent.
Independent Studies on Ribose-Cysteine
NOTE: The following links take you away from this page to 3rd party research sites.
1. Saltman A.E.D-Ribose-L-cysteine supplementation enhances wound healing in a rodent model. Am J Surg. 2015, 210, 153-158.
2. Kader, T.; Porteous C.M.; Williams M.A.J.A.; Gieseg, S.P.; McCormick, S.P.A. Ribose-cysteine increases glutathione-based antioxidant status and reduces LDL in human lipoprotein(a) mice. Atherosclerosis. 2014, 237, 725-733.
3. Jurkowska, H.; Uchacz, T.; Roberts, J.; Wrobel, M. Potential therapeutic advantage of ribose-cysteine in the inhibition of astrocytoma cell proliferation Amino Acids, 2011, 41, 131-139.
4. Heman-Ackah, S.E.; Juhn, S.K.; Huang, T.C.; Wiedmann, T.S. Potential therapeutic advantage of ribose-cysteine in the inhibition of astrocytoma cell proliferation Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 2010,143, 429-434.
5. Oz, H.S.; Chen, T.S.; Nagasawa, H., Comparative efficacies of 2 cysteine prodrugs and a glutathione delivery agent in a colitis model. Translational Research, , 150(2), 122-129., 150(2), 122-129.
6. Lucas Slitt, A.M.; Dominick, P.K.; Roberts, J.C.; Cohen, S.D. Effect of Ribose Cysteine Pretreatment on Hepatic and Renal Acetaminophen Metabolite Formation and Glutathione Depletion. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2005, 96 (6), 487-94.
7. Waldron, C.A.; Vannais, D.B.; Ueno A.M. A role for long-lived radicals (LLR) in radiation-induced mutation and persistent chromosomal instability: counteraction by Ascorbate and Ribs but not DMSO. Mutation Research. 2004, 551-255-265.
8. Lenarczyk, M.; Ueno, A.; Vannais, D.B.; Kraemer, S.; Kronenberg, A.; Roberts, J.C.; Tatsumi, K.; Hei, T.K.; Waldron, C.A. The “Pro-drug” RibCys Decreases the Mutagenicity of High-LET Radiation in Cultured Mammalian Cells.Radiation Research, 2003, 160, 579-583.
9. Wilmore, B.H.; Cassidy, P.B.; Warters, R.L.; Roberts, J.C. Thiazolidine Prodrugs as Protective Agents against y-Radiation-Induced Toxicity and Mutagenesis in V79 Cells. J. Med. Chem., , 44(16), 2661-2666., 44(16), 2661-2666.
10. Lucus, A.M.; Henning G.; Dominick, P.K.; Whiteley, H.E.; Roberts, J.C.; Cohen, S.D. Ribose Cysteine Protects Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic and Renal Toxicity. Toxicologic Pathology, 2000, 28(5), 697-704.
11. Roberts, J.C.; Phaneuf, H.L.; Dominick, P.K.; Wilmore, B.H.; Cassidy, P.B. Biodistribution of [35S] – Cysteine and Cysteine Prodrugs: Potential Impact on Chemoprotection Strategies. J. Labelled Cpd. Radiopharm., 1999all.riboceine.study1.51
12. Roberts, J.C.; Phaneuf, H.L.; Szakacs, J.G.; Zera, R.T.; Lamb, J.G.; Franklin, M.R. Differential Chemoprotection against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Latentiated L-Cysteines. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 1998, 11, 1274-1282.
13. Bantseev, V.; Bhardwaj, R.; Rathbun, W.; Nagasawa, H.T.; Trevithick, J.R. Antioxidants and Cataract: (Cataract Induction in Space Environment and Application to Terrestrial Aging Cataract). Biochem. Mol. Bio. Intl., 1997, 42, 1189-1197.
Roberts, J.C.; Koch, K.E.; Detrick, S.R.; Warters, R.L.; Lubec G. 14. Thiazolidine Prodrugs of Cysteamine and Cysteine as Radioprotective Agents. Radiation Research, 1995, 143, 203-213.
15. Carroll, M.P.; Zera, R.T.; Roberts, J.C.; Schlafmann, S.E.; Feeny, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; West, M.A.; Bubrick, M.P. Efficacy of Radioprotective Agents in Preventing Small and Large Bowel Radiation Injury. Dis. Colon Rectum, 1995, 38(7), 716-722.
16. Roberts, J.C.;Francetic, D.J.; Zera, R.T. Chemoprotection against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urotoxicity: Comparison of Nine Thiol Protective Agents. AntiCancer Research, 1994, 14, 389-396.
17. Rowe, J.K.; Zera, R.T.; Madoff, R.D.; Fink, A.S.; Roberts, J.C.; Johnston, G.R.; Freeney, D.A.;Young, H.L.; Bubrick, M.P. Protective Effect of RibCys Following High-Dose Irradiation of the Rectosigmoid. Dis. Colon Rectum, 1993, 36(7), 681-687.
18. Roberts, J.C.; Charyulu, R. L.; Zera, R.T.; Nagasawa, H.T. Protection Against Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity by Ribose-Cysteine (RibCys). Pharmacology & Toxicology, 1992, 70, 281-285.
19. Roberts, J.C.; Francetic, D.J. Mechanisms of Chemoprotection by RibCys, a Thiazolidine Prodrug of L-cysteine. Med. Chem. Res., 1991, 1, 213-219.
20. Roberts, J.C.; Francetic, D.J. Time course for the elevation of glutathione in numerous organs of L1210-bearing CDF1 mice given the L-cysteine prodrug, RibCys. Toxicology Letters, 1991, 59, 245-251.
21. Roberts, J.C.; Francetic, D.J.; Zera, R.T. L-cysteine prodrug protects against cyclophosphamide urotoxicity without compromising therapeutic activity. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 1991, 28, 166-170.
22. Roberts, J.C.; Nagasawa, H.T.; Zera, R.T.; Fricke, R.F.; Goon, D.J. W. Prodrugs of L-cysteine as protective agents against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. 2-(polyhydroxyalky)-and 2-(Polyacetoxyalky)-Thiazolidine-4(R)-Carboxylic Acids. . Med Chem., 1987, 30, 1891-1896.